Allotrope of Carbon


Graphene is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. In more complex terms, it is an allotrope of carbon in the structure of a plane of sp2 bonded atoms with a molecule bond length of 0.142 nanometres. Layers of graphene stacked on top of each other form graphite, with inter planar spacing of 0.335 nanometres.  Furthermore, the quality of the graphene that was separated by using this method was sufficiently high enough to create molecular electronic devices successfully. While this research is very highly regarded, the quality of the graphene produced will still be the limiting factor in technological applications. Once graphene can be produced on very thin pieces of metal or other arbitrary surfaces (of tens of nanometres thick) using chemical vapour disposition at low temperatures and then separated in a way that can control such impurities as ripples, doping levels and domain size whilst also controlling the number and relative crystallographic orientation of the graphene layers, then we will start to see graphene become more widely utilized as production techniques become more simplified and cost-effective.


  • Formation of minerals to molecular interactions
  • Biomedicaland Sensors
  • Nonlinear Kerr effect
  • Mechanical exfoliation
  • Neodymium magnets

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